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Modelling feeding flow related shrinkage defects in aluminum castings

Identifieur interne : 000962 ( Main/Exploration ); précédent : 000961; suivant : 000963

Modelling feeding flow related shrinkage defects in aluminum castings

Auteurs : A. Reis [Portugal] ; Z. Xu [Belgique] ; R. V. Tol [Belgique] ; R. Neto [Portugal]

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Mots-clés :

Abstract

The process modelling of shape casting is geometrically complex and computationally very challenging. Besides the three-dimensional complex shapes with multiple domains, the defects of interest to industry arise as a consequence of the interaction amongst a range of phenomena. Conventionally, the key phenomena and defect prediction are modelled through empirical relations applied to the simulation results. Such approaches are neither comprehensive nor reliable. This paper presents a 3-D model that is capable of predicting the formation of shrinkage defects explicitly as a function of the interacting continuum phenomena, i.e. free surface flow. heat transfer, and solidification, in complex three-dimensional geometries which allows to identify the distinction between surface depression, surface connected cavities and internal cavities. The model solves the coupled macroscopic conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy with a phase change during solidification. In the model, the volume deficit due to solidification can either be compensated by depression of the outside surface or by creating a cavity that initiates either on the surface or in the interior of the casting. The solidification morphology is taken into account by using a parameter, which depends on the fraction solid, in the momentum equation. By using an adapted free surface algorithm, it is suitable to predict surface connected defects: depressed surfaces and caved surfaces. A critical pressure serves as a criterion to open internal shrinkage cavities. The model does not need to search for connected zones to feed shrinkage, but the shrinkage distribution will automatically emerge from the continuity equation. This advanced shrinkage model has experimentally been validated successfully using two Al-Si alloys, a skin freezing eutectic alloy and a mushy freezing hypo-eutectic alloy.


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<term>Experimental study</term>
<term>Feeding device</term>
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<term>Solidification</term>
<term>Surface defect</term>
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<term>Retrait</term>
<term>Défaut fonderie</term>
<term>Coulée en moule</term>
<term>Réseau fissure</term>
<term>Transfert chaleur</term>
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<term>Changement phase</term>
<term>Transformation phase</term>
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<term>Quantité mouvement</term>
<term>Surface libre</term>
<term>Défaut surface</term>
<term>Pression critique</term>
<term>Dispositif alimentation</term>
<term>Forme complexe</term>
<term>Ecoulement surface libre</term>
<term>Etat dépressif</term>
<term>Alliage base aluminium</term>
<term>Silicium alliage</term>
<term>Modélisation</term>
<term>Méthode empirique</term>
<term>Loi conservation</term>
<term>Equation continuité</term>
<term>Etude expérimentale</term>
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<div type="abstract" xml:lang="en">The process modelling of shape casting is geometrically complex and computationally very challenging. Besides the three-dimensional complex shapes with multiple domains, the defects of interest to industry arise as a consequence of the interaction amongst a range of phenomena. Conventionally, the key phenomena and defect prediction are modelled through empirical relations applied to the simulation results. Such approaches are neither comprehensive nor reliable. This paper presents a 3-D model that is capable of predicting the formation of shrinkage defects explicitly as a function of the interacting continuum phenomena, i.e. free surface flow. heat transfer, and solidification, in complex three-dimensional geometries which allows to identify the distinction between surface depression, surface connected cavities and internal cavities. The model solves the coupled macroscopic conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy with a phase change during solidification. In the model, the volume deficit due to solidification can either be compensated by depression of the outside surface or by creating a cavity that initiates either on the surface or in the interior of the casting. The solidification morphology is taken into account by using a parameter, which depends on the fraction solid, in the momentum equation. By using an adapted free surface algorithm, it is suitable to predict surface connected defects: depressed surfaces and caved surfaces. A critical pressure serves as a criterion to open internal shrinkage cavities. The model does not need to search for connected zones to feed shrinkage, but the shrinkage distribution will automatically emerge from the continuity equation. This advanced shrinkage model has experimentally been validated successfully using two Al-Si alloys, a skin freezing eutectic alloy and a mushy freezing hypo-eutectic alloy.</div>
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