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Modeling and analyzing observed transverse sand bars in the surf zone

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Modeling and analyzing observed transverse sand bars in the surf zone

Auteurs : F. Ribas ; H. E. De Swart ; D. Calvete ; A. Falqués

Source :

Abstract

A morphodynamic model has been applied to explain the characteristics of transverse sandbars observed in the inner surf zone of open beaches. The model describes the feedback between waves, rollers, depth‐averaged currents and bed evolution, so that self‐organized processes can develop. The modeled bar characteristics, i.e. wavelength (30–70 m), crest orientation (up‐current) and the e‐folding growth time (about 12 hr) are in good agreement with those of observed transverse bars at Noordwijk beach, the Netherlands, but modeled migration speeds (tens of meters per day), turn out to be a factor 2 larger than those observed. The wavelength increases with the distance between the shoreline and the peak of the longshore current and the migration speed is correlated with the maximum longshore current. The model also explains why transverse bar formation at Noordwijk occurs for obliquely incident waves of intermediate heights. Realistic positive feedback leading to formation of up‐current oriented bars like those observed is only obtained if a term related to the turbulence sediment resuspension created by the rollers is included in the transport formula. In that case, the depth‐averaged sediment concentration decreases seaward across the inner surf zone, enhancing the convergence of sediment transport in the offshore directed flow perturbations that occur over the up‐current bars. This offshore current deflection is mainly caused by frictional torques, but the roller radiation stresses also play an important role.


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DOI: 10.1029/2011JF002158

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<abstract>A morphodynamic model has been applied to explain the characteristics of transverse sandbars observed in the inner surf zone of open beaches. The model describes the feedback between waves, rollers, depth‐averaged currents and bed evolution, so that self‐organized processes can develop. The modeled bar characteristics, i.e. wavelength (30–70 m), crest orientation (up‐current) and the e‐folding growth time (about 12 hr) are in good agreement with those of observed transverse bars at Noordwijk beach, the Netherlands, but modeled migration speeds (tens of meters per day), turn out to be a factor 2 larger than those observed. The wavelength increases with the distance between the shoreline and the peak of the longshore current and the migration speed is correlated with the maximum longshore current. The model also explains why transverse bar formation at Noordwijk occurs for obliquely incident waves of intermediate heights. Realistic positive feedback leading to formation of up‐current oriented bars like those observed is only obtained if a term related to the turbulence sediment resuspension created by the rollers is included in the transport formula. In that case, the depth‐averaged sediment concentration decreases seaward across the inner surf zone, enhancing the convergence of sediment transport in the offshore directed flow perturbations that occur over the up‐current bars. This offshore current deflection is mainly caused by frictional torques, but the roller radiation stresses also play an important role.</abstract>
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<identifier type="ISSN">0148-0227</identifier>
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