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The Singer's Formant and Speaker's Ring Resonance: A Long-Term Average Spectrum Analysis

Identifieur interne : 000609 ( Ncbi/Merge ); précédent : 000608; suivant : 000610

The Singer's Formant and Speaker's Ring Resonance: A Long-Term Average Spectrum Analysis

Auteurs : Sang-Hyuk Lee [Corée du Sud] ; Hee-Jun Kwon [Corée du Sud] ; Hyun-Jin Choi [Corée du Sud] ; Nam-Hun Lee [Corée du Sud] ; Sung-Jin Lee [Corée du Sud] ; Sung-Min Jin [Corée du Sud]

Source :

RBID : PMC:2671792

Abstract

Objectives

We previously showed that a trained tenor's voice has the conventional singer's formant at the region of 3 kHz and another energy peak at 8-9 kHz. Singers in other operatic voice ranges are assumed to have the same peak in their singing and speaking voice. However, to date, no specific measurement of this has been made.

Methods

Tenors, baritones, sopranos and mezzo sopranos were chosen to participate in this study of the singer's formant and the speaker's ring resonance. Untrained males (n=15) and females (n=15) were included in the control group. Each subject was asked to produce successive /a/ vowel sounds in their singing and speaking voice. For singing, the low pitch was produced in the chest register and the high notes in the head register. We collected the data on the long-term average spectra of the speaking and singing voices of the trained singers and the control groups.

Results

For the sounds produced from the head register, a significant energy concentration was seen in both 2.2-3.4 kHz and 7.5-8.4 kHz regions (except for the voices of the mezzo sopranos) in the trained singer group when compared to the control groups. Also, the chest register had a significant energy concentration in the 4 trained singer groups at the 2.2-3.1 kHz and 7.8-8.4 kHz. For speaking sound, all trained singers had a significant energy concentration at 2.2-5.3 kHz and sopranos had another energy concentration at 9-10 kHz.

Conclusion

The results of this study suggest that opera singers have more energy concentration in the singer's formant/speaker's ring region, in both singing and speaking voices. Furthermore, another region of energy concentration was identified in opera singer's singing sound and in sopranos' speaking sound at 8-9 kHz. The authors believe that these energy concentrations may contribute to the rich voice of trained singers.


Url:
DOI: 10.3342/ceo.2008.1.2.92
PubMed: 19434279
PubMed Central: 2671792

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PMC:2671792

Le document en format XML

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<title>Objectives</title>
<p>We previously showed that a trained tenor's voice has the conventional singer's formant at the region of 3 kHz and another energy peak at 8-9 kHz. Singers in other operatic voice ranges are assumed to have the same peak in their singing and speaking voice. However, to date, no specific measurement of this has been made.</p>
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<p>Tenors, baritones, sopranos and mezzo sopranos were chosen to participate in this study of the singer's formant and the speaker's ring resonance. Untrained males (n=15) and females (n=15) were included in the control group. Each subject was asked to produce successive /a/ vowel sounds in their singing and speaking voice. For singing, the low pitch was produced in the chest register and the high notes in the head register. We collected the data on the long-term average spectra of the speaking and singing voices of the trained singers and the control groups.</p>
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<title>Results</title>
<p>For the sounds produced from the head register, a significant energy concentration was seen in both 2.2-3.4 kHz and 7.5-8.4 kHz regions (except for the voices of the mezzo sopranos) in the trained singer group when compared to the control groups. Also, the chest register had a significant energy concentration in the 4 trained singer groups at the 2.2-3.1 kHz and 7.8-8.4 kHz. For speaking sound, all trained singers had a significant energy concentration at 2.2-5.3 kHz and sopranos had another energy concentration at 9-10 kHz.</p>
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<p>The results of this study suggest that opera singers have more energy concentration in the singer's formant/speaker's ring region, in both singing and speaking voices. Furthermore, another region of energy concentration was identified in opera singer's singing sound and in sopranos' speaking sound at 8-9 kHz. The authors believe that these energy concentrations may contribute to the rich voice of trained singers.</p>
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<name sortKey="Choi, Hyun Jin" sort="Choi, Hyun Jin" uniqKey="Choi H" first="Hyun-Jin" last="Choi">Hyun-Jin Choi</name>
<affiliation wicri:level="3">
<nlm:aff id="A1">Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.</nlm:aff>
<country xml:lang="fr" wicri:curation="lc">Corée du Sud</country>
<wicri:regionArea>Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul</wicri:regionArea>
<placeName>
<settlement type="city">Séoul</settlement>
</placeName>
</affiliation>
</author>
<author>
<name sortKey="Lee, Nam Hun" sort="Lee, Nam Hun" uniqKey="Lee N" first="Nam-Hun" last="Lee">Nam-Hun Lee</name>
<affiliation wicri:level="3">
<nlm:aff id="A1">Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.</nlm:aff>
<country xml:lang="fr" wicri:curation="lc">Corée du Sud</country>
<wicri:regionArea>Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul</wicri:regionArea>
<placeName>
<settlement type="city">Séoul</settlement>
</placeName>
</affiliation>
</author>
<author>
<name sortKey="Lee, Sung Jin" sort="Lee, Sung Jin" uniqKey="Lee S" first="Sung-Jin" last="Lee">Sung-Jin Lee</name>
<affiliation wicri:level="3">
<nlm:aff id="A1">Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.</nlm:aff>
<country xml:lang="fr" wicri:curation="lc">Corée du Sud</country>
<wicri:regionArea>Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul</wicri:regionArea>
<placeName>
<settlement type="city">Séoul</settlement>
</placeName>
</affiliation>
</author>
<author>
<name sortKey="Jin, Sung Min" sort="Jin, Sung Min" uniqKey="Jin S" first="Sung-Min" last="Jin">Sung-Min Jin</name>
<affiliation wicri:level="3">
<nlm:aff id="A1">Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.</nlm:aff>
<country xml:lang="fr" wicri:curation="lc">Corée du Sud</country>
<wicri:regionArea>Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul</wicri:regionArea>
<placeName>
<settlement type="city">Séoul</settlement>
</placeName>
</affiliation>
</author>
</analytic>
<series>
<title level="j">Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology</title>
<idno type="ISSN">1976-8710</idno>
<idno type="e-ISSN">2005-0720</idno>
<imprint>
<date when="2008">2008</date>
</imprint>
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<div type="abstract" xml:lang="en">
<sec>
<title>Objectives</title>
<p>We previously showed that a trained tenor's voice has the conventional singer's formant at the region of 3 kHz and another energy peak at 8-9 kHz. Singers in other operatic voice ranges are assumed to have the same peak in their singing and speaking voice. However, to date, no specific measurement of this has been made.</p>
</sec>
<sec>
<title>Methods</title>
<p>Tenors, baritones, sopranos and mezzo sopranos were chosen to participate in this study of the singer's formant and the speaker's ring resonance. Untrained males (n=15) and females (n=15) were included in the control group. Each subject was asked to produce successive /a/ vowel sounds in their singing and speaking voice. For singing, the low pitch was produced in the chest register and the high notes in the head register. We collected the data on the long-term average spectra of the speaking and singing voices of the trained singers and the control groups.</p>
</sec>
<sec>
<title>Results</title>
<p>For the sounds produced from the head register, a significant energy concentration was seen in both 2.2-3.4 kHz and 7.5-8.4 kHz regions (except for the voices of the mezzo sopranos) in the trained singer group when compared to the control groups. Also, the chest register had a significant energy concentration in the 4 trained singer groups at the 2.2-3.1 kHz and 7.8-8.4 kHz. For speaking sound, all trained singers had a significant energy concentration at 2.2-5.3 kHz and sopranos had another energy concentration at 9-10 kHz.</p>
</sec>
<sec>
<title>Conclusion</title>
<p>The results of this study suggest that opera singers have more energy concentration in the singer's formant/speaker's ring region, in both singing and speaking voices. Furthermore, another region of energy concentration was identified in opera singer's singing sound and in sopranos' speaking sound at 8-9 kHz. The authors believe that these energy concentrations may contribute to the rich voice of trained singers.</p>
</sec>
</div>
</front>
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<nlm:affiliation>Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.</nlm:affiliation>
<country xml:lang="fr">Corée du Sud</country>
<wicri:regionArea>Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul</wicri:regionArea>
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<settlement type="city">Séoul</settlement>
</placeName>
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<name sortKey="Kwon, Hee Jun" sort="Kwon, Hee Jun" uniqKey="Kwon H" first="Hee-Jun" last="Kwon">Hee-Jun Kwon</name>
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<name sortKey="Choi, Hyun Jin" sort="Choi, Hyun Jin" uniqKey="Choi H" first="Hyun-Jin" last="Choi">Hyun-Jin Choi</name>
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<name sortKey="Jin, Sung Min" sort="Jin, Sung Min" uniqKey="Jin S" first="Sung-Min" last="Jin">Sung-Min Jin</name>
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<div type="abstract" xml:lang="en">We previously showed that a trained tenor's voice has the conventional singer's formant at the region of 3 kHz and another energy peak at 8-9 kHz. Singers in other operatic voice ranges are assumed to have the same peak in their singing and speaking voice. However, to date, no specific measurement of this has been made.</div>
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